How Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind Dismantles the Gender Objectification of the Manic Pixie Dream Girl Trope

By Cathy Le and Camille Alam

The Manic Pixie Dream Girl is a title given to a quirky upbeat woman whose primary purpose in a movie is in helping a distressed young man embrace life. Though the label was initially used to call out sexism in film, it becomes harmful when broadly applied. By grouping female characters who exhibit any such traits, it dismisses the women’s deeper aspirations. Clementine from the movie “Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind” might seem like the epitome of the Manic Pixie Dream Girl upon the first watch, but the movie’s rejection of emphasized femininity and subversion of hegemonic gender tropes allows for a much richer and complex narrative. On the other hand, the movie “Elizabethtown,”where the term originally was derived from, demonstrates damaging objectification and diminishes the character Claire to a plot device. We will compare these two films and study how they adhere or deviate from the Manic Pixie Dream Girl trope. In this, we can explore how conformist gender stereotypes reinforce patriarchal hierarchies and how the trope exists predominantly within the perspective of the male gaze.

The Origin of the Trope and Its Implications

In film critic Nathan Rabin’s 2007 review of the movie “Elizabethtown”, he gives birth to the term Manic Pixie Dream Girl, describing women under this label as existing “solely in the fevered imaginations of sensitive writer-directors to teach broodingly soulful young men to embrace life and its infinite mysteries and adventures”. This is said in reaction to the character Claire who he describes as a “psychotically chipper waitress.” She exists within a heightened reality where “no existential quandary is so great that it can’t be solved by a (…) dream girl” (Rabin, 2007). This eccentric fantasy woman has long been written into centuries of storytelling. Developed by male writers and male directors, this male-centered perspective incites little nuance to female characters, leaving them underdeveloped and victim to the same reoccurring narratives.

Bringing up Baby: The New Yorker

Such examples throughout history include the scatterbrained Susan in “Bringing up Baby”, the chatty Judy from “What’s Up Doc”, and the carefree Annie in “Annie Hall”. In all these films, the high-spirited women serve as an agent of change for the men, helping them understand the wonders of life and saving them from their own self-brooding. These women are often described as Manic Pixie Dream Girls to point out the shallow one-dimensional writing. Despite this seemingly progressive awareness, the acknowledgement alone does not call for definitive action. More so, it belittles the female characters and is subject to error. The ease of use in this catch-all phrase lends itself to mislabeling, as any extroverted female character with non-conformist tastes is expected to perform linearly. 

Categorizing characters as Manic Pixie Dream Girls undermines the complexity of female heroines, reducing them to a stereotype. The origins of the term were indeed calling out a history of weak female writing and ingrained gender objectification, but furthermore it is important to recognize the innate intricacies of female characters.

Clementine from “Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind” is a classic mistype of this trope as she exhibits many fitting characteristics: extroversion, impulsiveness, and whimsy. In comparison with Claire from “Elizabethtown”, both female characters share a similar story arc. They come across a lonely sad man and help him grow through wonderful adventure and lively conversation. However, if we further examine the movie “Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind”, we see that it follows this trope in order to completely flip and dismantle it as a critique on reinforced gender stereotypes. Through the two movie’s similarities and preceding differences, we can explore how the Manic Pixie Dream Girl is built upon toxic gendered traditions such as emphasized femininity, hegemonic masculinity, and the prevalence of the male gaze.

The Impulsive/Quirky Woman

Within the Manic Pixie Dream Girl trope, impulsiveness and quirkiness are definitional to the character, as it largely defines her actions in relation to the leading man. In both “Elizabethtown” and “Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind,” the filmmakers signal these characteristics in several ways ranging from unorthodox aesthetics to the erasure of the woman’s aspirations. This impulsiveness produces ambivalent notions of feminism. There is a postfeminist quality to this characterization in that quirkiness and impulsiveness promotes a version of liberation that hinges on the ability of these characters to make choices out of their own will without suffering the consequences many women before them have faced. On the other hand, much of this impulsivity is meant to forward the narrative of the male leads. 

Claire Surprises Drew: Fanpop

“Elizabethtown” is completely uncritical of Claire’s impulsiveness, and also uncritical of the trope overall, hence its label as the source text of the term Manic Pixie Dream Girl. There is little to no exposition for Claire, and there is hardly any explanation as to why she can drop her career as a flight attendant anytime she pleases. For example, Claire impulsively decides to take off from her flight that was en route to Hawaii in order to come to the aid of Drew, a man she had met less than a week prior to making this decision. While there is a sense of independence in the fact that she was by no means coerced into her decision, there is hardly any explanation as to why she felt it was necessary to aid a man she had hardly known. The only true explanation for this lies in the perception of women as a small puzzle piece to the narratives of men, which is largely informed by notions of emphasized femininity. In Drew’s eyes, Claire is near perfect. One of the reasons he sees her this way is because Claire cares for him in a way that is oftentimes at the expense of her own independent thoughts. 

Clementine and Joel on Ice: Syfy

Meanwhile, “Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind” uses this quirkiness as a means to characterize Clementine in both a positive and negative light. Initially, Joel’s attraction to Clementine is somewhat influenced by her impulsiveness and quirkiness. Aesthetically, Clementine’s unorthodox nature is embodied through her changes in hair color, which is a charming personality trait for Joel. Clementine’s impulsiveness is infectious, exemplified by a moment in which Clementine emboldens Joel to walk across and lay atop a frozen river as they open up to one another. This moment gives Joel a new lease on life and also sparks their relationship. However, the audience is taken on a journey of their relationship through the mind of Joel, a symbol of the male gaze. And within this narrative we see that Clementine’s impulsiveness is set up as a source of character flaws. But because of this, Clementine is written with more complexity than Claire; while at face value Clementine appears to be a narrative tool to explore Joel’s emotions and memory, an in-depth analysis of the film indicates that Clementine is also a flawed heroine of the story. 

The Depressed Lonely Man

These narratives center around a sad male protagonist who buries his emotions behind a dull facade and disassociates from regular life. Unable to pull himself out of a somber cycle of self-loathing, he requires the help of a Manic Pixie Dream Girl to awaken him from his misery and broaden his outlook on life. The Manic Pixie Dream Girl is built from the imaginations of such male perspectives and thus exists within this window of the male gaze. They evoke all the desired qualities that would appease the liking of a hegemonic male such as exuding natural charm, offering life-changing advice, and caring for the wellbeing of the men. By creating men who are initially unable to break out of their rut themselves, this trope reinforces notions of hegemonic masculinity because it proposes that it is not normal for men to experience emotions outside of maintaining a tough composed persona. In turn, this reinforces emphasized femininity by calling for an external female character who is nurturing and catering. She coddles the men with affection and helps them grow without regard for her own circumstances. This is an unrealistic depiction of the relationship between genders and serves only to uphold a gendered patriarchy. We will observe how “Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind” seeks to overthrow these conventional tropes by creating complex male and female characters who exhibit emotions that are much deeper than the corresponding protagonists of “Elizabethtown”.

Drew Shows Emotion At The End: Tumblr

Both men face a form of distress following a large life event, but handle it in differing ways. Drew from “Elizabethtown” is battling his severe career blunder and his father’s death. He hides his emotions behind a veil of normalcy, repeatedly saying “I’m fine” to assure his coworkers that he is strong and unhindered which is in line with hegemonic masculinity. It is not until Drew meets Claire that he begins to analyze his own thoughts more deeply. Claire acts as a catalyst of change, using her feminine musings to enlighten Drew. She contrives an elaborate road trip and equips it with curated mixtapes and thoughtful demands. Only then does he open up and allows himself to cry. She tells him how and when to feel, thus Drew does not get the chance to change on his own terms nor grow as an individual. 

Joel Cries in the Opening Credits: Youtube

Comparatively, Joel from “Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind” is dealing with the end of his relationship with Clementine and the moral consequences of erasing her from his memory. He is shown crying in the opening sequences of the film which is a departure from the orthodox representation of men as resilient and strong. Given the movie’s nonlinear time narrative, it presents this image right away to normalize his emotional turmoil. Though Clementine appears in a large portion of the movie guiding Joel, it is not actually her who is the catalyst of change but Joel himself. Screenwriter Charlie Kaufman remarks that “‘You’re not watching a relationship – you’re watching someone’s idea of a relationship, and everything that Clementine says to Joel during the whole memory erasing procedure is just Joel talking to himself” (Grindon, 2012, p. 198). Thus, the idealized version of Clementine is acknowledged to be existing within Joel’s male perspective. This awareness allows the movie to break Clementine from the male-centered narrative, giving her a life outside of Joel’s mind. By having most of the movie be seen from the perspective of Joel’s mind, we see exactly how he is coping and growing as an individual. He remembers the harsh details of their relationship first, only later reminiscing on its poignant sweet moments. This makes his final decision to pursue Clementine at the end of the movie a decision of his own making, as he has had ample time to analyze all the minute details of their relationship together and examine its effect on his own psyche.

Claire as the Manic Pixie Dream Girl is idealized to be all the traits that Drew needs without care about her own wants, putting her under the scrutiny of the male gaze. For instance, she remains madly infatuated with Drew even after he responds to her profession of love with a tangent about his own problems. Her actions are merely a vehicle of plot progression, from helping him pick out his Dad’s urn to helping him handle his loneliness during a night long call. She is boxed into a world catering to men. Clementine as the Manic Pixie Dream Girl exists within the mind of Joel which the film acknowledges with its use of science fiction to create dreamlike situations where Joel imagines Clementine within his own memories. In reality, Clementine is fiercely independent and is dealing with her own issues. Poignantly said by Clementine in response to Joel, “Too many guys think I’m a concept, or I complete them, or I’m gonna make them alive. But I’m just a fucked-up girl who’s lookin’ for my own peace of mind; don’t assign me yours.” “Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind” is acutely aware of how toxic it is to expect a woman’s presence to fix the problems of a depressed tortured man while “Elizabethtown” largely brushes over this issue, using it instead as a significant plot device without greater context.

The Spontaneous First Encounter

The Manic Pixie Dream Girl comes across the reserved male protagonist by chance. With quirky banter and an upbeat persona, she is immediately drawn to the quiet male and seeks to bring excitement to his life. The male does not initially respond with interest, but he will realize her uniqueness after spending the length of the film with her. This spontaneous first encounter is rooted in gender expectations for both the men and women. It ridicules men who deviate from the hegemonic norms of firm masculinity. The men are rendered useless and unable to handle their own emotional situations without the help of a good-natured woman. Likewise, it paints the women as fantastical beings whose sole aim is to mend the men’s problems. “Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind” opens the movie with a scene that falls in line with this trope and shows striking similarities to the shallow first meeting in “Elizabethtown”. However, when the film reveals the actual first encounter, it highlights the complexities of two such individuals of differing ambitions.

Claire and Drew’s First Meeting: Maui Watch

In “Elizabethtown”, Claire is a nice flight attendant who meets Drew on his plane trip to gather his dad’s ashes. She is quick to start conversation with him, speaking in random musings and spewing a stream of consciousness. Drew is uninterested, too wound up in his thoughts, but Claire insists on helping him. When parting ways, she exclaims “Look, I know I may never see you again… but we are intrepid.” In a film review of the movie, writer Ethan Alter remarks that “when Claire all but forces Drew into a conversation during their first meeting, she seems like more of a pushy narcissist than a lovable eccentric” (Alter, 2005). It is in her perceived feminine perfection and the lack of background in her character that creates a contrived female lead. There was a potential to offer more depth to her actions but instead Claire is made out to be a blessing sent from the heavens. The superficial meet-cute narrative may sway some audiences, but more diverse viewers who are accustomed to the lack of representation of strong female characters are left unsatisfied. As said by academic scholar Claire Solomon, the Manic Pixie Dream Girl “exists in the measure that the male protagonist needs her. She has no backstory and no inner life” (Solomon, 2017, p.3).

Clementine and Joel’s Fake First Meeting: Fandomania

If we study only the opening scene of “Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind” we find many similarities to “Elizabethtown” and thus might be apt to label Clementine as another rendition of the Manic Pixie Dream Girl trope. She meets Joel spontaneously on a train and approaches him with playful banter, going on about random tidbits of her life. Like Drew, Joel is ridden with emotional problems, but the reason why is initially hidden from the viewer. Because of this elusive time structure, the audience is led to believe that Clementine is another fantasy woman who sweeps in to bring excitement to Joel’s life. However, we later learn that this is actually their second encounter, as they have had the memories of their previous 2-year relationship erased. Clementine acts upon impulse because of an instinctive gut feeling that has been messing with her internal emotions as she clings onto her lost memories. Using a “highly edited, self-conscious style emphasizing subjectivity and a postmodern fragmentation” the film commentates on how labeling characters under definite gendered tropes is limiting to the capabilities of men and women who offer much more to the plot than just a linear narrative (Grindon, 2012, p. 201). In the actual first encounter, a more subdued Clementine meets Joel at a beach gathering. They explore an abandoned house together, but Joel leaves as he is scared of the adventure. Clementine continues on without him, saying “so go” without much care for if Joel stays or not. The following day when Joel approaches her again, she responds in distaste saying “Look, man, I’m telling you right off the bat, I’m high maintenance. If you want to be with me, you’re with me.” Similarly, in the encounter after their memory erasure, when Joel calls her nice, she responds,  “I don’t need nice. I don’t need myself to be it and I don’t need anyone else to be it at me.” We see that Clementine is much more than just the pandering sweet female caricature that Claire from “Elizabethtown” represents. Clementine acts for herself and does not need approval from a male figure. She holds herself to high standards, dismantling any such notions of male objectification.

The Relationship and Finale

Claire and Drew Reuniting: Screenshot of “Elizabethtown” at 1:56:31

By equating a happy ending to the beginning of an unequal relationship, it is clear that the Manic Pixie Dream Girl trope does not work to the benefit of the women they are portraying. Without addressing the faults of the Manic Pixie Dream Girl or showing any real interest in her, these relationships are largely informed by notions of emphasized femininity. The male gaze is employed to paint a picture in which the key to a man’s happiness is the objectified woman. In “Elizabethtown,” the male gaze is used in an uncritical way, ending the film on a lighter note, culminating with the two leads ending up with one another in spite of Drew’s little interest in Claire apart from how she makes him feel. This film ends with Drew on a road trip constructed by Claire, and leading to Claire, even after she tells him that they were not meant for each other. The picture above presents the embrace of Claire and Drew as they reconnect. In this picture, the audience only sees Drew gazing into the eyes of Claire, not revealing Claire’s face until she and Drew begin to kiss. This scene is a culmination of the objectification of Claire throughout the movie. We mostly get a sense for how Drew feels about their reunion, as the camera follows his face, representing a deeper investment on Drew’s narrative on the part of the filmmaker. Because of the focus on Drew, the audience has little understanding as to why Claire went back to Drew. For the sake of a happy, romantic ending, the film fails to interrogate the prospect of failure within the relationship, considering the fact that there was little confrontation of Claire’s autonomy and personal ambitions throughout the film. The audience is expected to believe that Claire is willing to heal Drew from two traumatic events, whilst she gets nothing in return. The believability of this scenario relies on the audience’s understanding of emphasized femininity, in which women are unequal within these gendered dynamics. Overall, Claire served no purpose beyond inspiring Drew and giving him happiness via romance. By the end of the film, the audience is aware of the utilization of the leading woman as a tool to enhance the personal triumphs, mostly emotional, of the leading man. 

Clementine and Joel Reconciling: Giphy

On the other hand, “Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind” demands the audience to examine the relationship between Clementine and Joel, just as they face each other and their relationship as two equals in the image above. In this process of confrontation, the flaws of these characters jump out in a way that emphasizes their humanity, as well as the human experience. The filmmakers deliberately use the male gaze to criticize this concept within storytelling in that Joel’s perception of Clementine led to the eventual downfall of their relationship. The contention between the way someone idealizes another person versus the confrontation of their flaws turns the Manic Pixie Dream Girl on its head. In the end of the film, Clementine suggests that there is no reason to rekindle their forgotten romance, telling Joel that she is not just simply a concept but rather “a fucked up girl who is looking for [her] own piece of mind,” which is a reiteration of a line she had said earlier in the film, showing us that Clementine is not willing to mold herself to become a perfect partner and object of attraction for Joel. Clementine also notes that Joel will eventually see her flaws, and she may get bored of him, which will eventually end in heartbreak. Clementine’s reluctance to re-enter this relationship stems from the possibility of her idealization at the hands of Joel. But she eventually accepts to go through the journey once again when Joel expresses an understanding of the fact that their relationship is doomed to fail. This film largely rejects notions of male gaze by reinforming Joel of this perception of Clementine as a perfect figure and an object that can cure him of his anxiety and introversion. In this film, we see an end to the objectification of Clementine, but the same cannot be said for Claire in “Elizabethtown.” And although the women in these films are not necessarily sexualized, they are still portrayed through the male gaze, and therefore objectified. This shift in the representation of women is a postfeminist phenomenon of the mid-2000s, as the women in these films were deemed as progressive because they were not sexual objects nor submissive figures. Rosalind Gill (2007) frames this contention between postfeminist beliefs versus the continued objectification of women, stating that “women are straight-forwardly objectified but are portrayed as active, desiring sexual subjects who choose to present themselves in a seemingly objectified manner because it suits their liberated interests to do so” (151). At the conclusion of these films, these women freely make their decision to pursue a relationship with these men. However, Claire accepts a role as an object for the self-growth of a man, which is not a full progression from the male gaze. Conversely, Clementine finds a sense of equality when she rekindles her relationship with Joel. Nevertheless, these two films still employ the male gaze, and although one film criticizes this lens, the women in both films are still presented as emotional subjects of the male leads. An exploration of the Manic Pixie Dream Girl trope beyond these two films reveal how this trope can either convincingly, or unconvincingly, act as a lens for criticism of poor female representation.

The End of the Manic Pixie Dream Girl

In 2014, Rabin recanted some of the claims he had made in his review of “Elizabethtown,” which started this discourse, apologizing for the fact that trope was “a fundamentally sexist one, since it makes women seem like less autonomous, independent entities than appealing props to help mopey, sad white men self-actualize” (Rabin, 2014). While Rubin is not a filmmaker, nor is responsible for creating this narrative structure within certain popular films, Rabin still addressed that “giving an idea a name and a fuzzy definition, you apparently also give it power” (Rabin, 2014). The very existence of such a term has erased the nuance and complexity from certain famous characters, such as Annie Hall and Holly Golightly (Rabin, 2014). Characters who had previously been celebrated for their resistance to the structures that generally render women as submissive and less intellectual in opposition to men were thus rebranded as embodiments of a misogynistic, Hollywood trope. There is no binary between representations of women, as suggested by the creation of the term. It is possible for movies to provide women with nuance while also placing them in a circumstance that does not allow them to fully exercise their independence. By analyzing films beyond the use of these terms, we can start to critique the nuances behind media through a feminist lens and understand what it takes to fully represent women. 

Hollywood’s Response to the Trope

“500 Hundred Days of Summer”: Moviefone

After Rabin created this label, many other films after 2005 faced scrutiny for its continuation of the trope, most popularly “500 Days of Summer,” which has become the face of the trope for many reasons. This film positions the leading woman, Summer, as an object of interest while the entirety of her plot line is told from the perspective of the man, Tom, who was eventually rejected by her. Like many other films that have a man obsessed with a Manic Pixie Dream Girl, “500 Days of Summer” contains a narrative that largely concerns itself with the growth of Tom through his relationship with Summer and the aftermath of its end. This film was initially well-received and became a well-known independent film. But as time went on, and audiences began to critically consider the implication of sexist writing in film, “500 Days of Summer” became more and more known for its use of the Manic Pixie Dream Girl trope. And while the character of Summer is vastly different from Claire in terms of autonomy, this notion of autonomy is simply not enough when a film still chooses to use “a white liberal male gaze” (Banach, 2019). Summer’s characterization as completely independent from Tom subverts the Manic Pixie Dream Girl trope in some ways, but this iteration of the trope is not as progressive as it seems. 

Paper Towns Poster
“Paper Towns” Film Poster: IMDB

The adaptation of YA novels also employs some aspects of the Manic Pixie Dream Girl trope, using a teen male gaze to look at teenage women. Popular sci-fi YA novel adaptations such as “The 5th Wave” and “Hunger Games” have also used some of these elements in order to frame the relationships between the woman and men of these films, even though both of these Manic Pixie Dream Girl are led by women. The adaptation of the John Green novel Paper Towns utilizes the MPDG paradigm by objectifying the leading woman, Margo, as the leading man, Quentin, searches for her. For the bulk of this film, Margot is depicted “as a transformative force, altering the male protagonist for the better,” even in her absence (Meeusen, 2020, p. 78). But the film concludes with Margo’s awareness of her position as an Manic Pixie Dream Girl, similar to Clementine, as “she clearly articulates that she is not a Manic Pixie Dream Girl, and in viewing her in this way, Quentin loses out” (Meeusen, 2020, p. 79). Although this conclusion to the film dismantles the trope, “Green had to, by very necessity, create a Manic Pixie Dream Girl,” which means that Green did not completely follow through with his goal to dismantle the Manic Pixie Dream Girl, as he thoroughly objectifies Margo in a way that has been done in other Manic Pixie Dream Girl films. This begs the question: why do filmmakers use the male gaze as a means to criticize the male gaze while there are other lenses that can truly explore these misogynistic representations of women?

Tessa Thompson as Detroit in “Sorry to Bother You”: The Verge

From an intersectional feminist lens, it is also hard to ignore the fact that this trope is largely a trope that ignores the voices of women who are not white, able-bodied, cisgender, and heterosexual. The 2018 film “Sorry to Bother You” introduces some aspects of the Manic Pixie Dream Girl through an Afro-Latinx woman in that her character was largely present to offer support to the male lead, and she was well-known for her quirkiness, expressed through her style and career. However, the filmmaker had given her agency as a voice of criticism for the male lead’s wavering principles, even leaving him when his beliefs no longer aligns with hers. Additionally, the narrative of the film includes multiple discussions about her career and ambitions. In this case, we are seeing a shift within this trope, as the politics, beliefs, and aspirations of the Manic Pixie Dream Girl are laid out in such a way that makes her a fully realized person beyond her partner (Joyner, 2018). Instead of fully depicting a Manic Pixie Dream Girl relationship and storyline, the audience is presented with real-world, relationship dynamics where the partners are equal to one another and properly communicate what they need from each other. 

The examples above prove that there really is no linear trajectory of the Manic Pixie Dream Girl trope. This trope was, in many ways, meant to separate Indiewood, from Hollywood, naturally making the trope subversive. The Manic Pixie Dream Girl can be seen as progressive in some ways. In these films, the men go through an emotional journey that disrupts expectations that stem from hegemonic masculinity, allowing these men to cry and learn how to productively communicate their feelings, all as a result of accepting the help of a strong woman. And the attribution of this strength to women is certainly a subversion of tropes that depict women as submissive and helpless. But this subversion of toxic masculinity is only facilitated by the implementation of emphasized femininity. Because of its inherent misogyny, as the Manic Pixie Dream Girl is usually an invention of male filmmakers and portrayed through a male gaze, it is getting gradually more and more difficult to produce a film that employs the Manic Pixie Dream Girl trope without criticizing it at the same time. Overall, the issue with Manic Pixie Dream Girls is a product of poor representation, both behind the scenes and in terms of audience. By allowing more female filmmakers to depict the narratives that are true to the complicated, autonomous lives that many other women lead in reality, the Manic Pixie Dream Girl trope will no longer be relevant. 


Alter, E. (2005). Elizabethtown. Film Journal International, 108(11), 104–.

Banach, A. (2019, July). What We Can Learn Watching ‘(500) Days of Summer’ Ten Years Later. Observer. 

Crowe, C. (2005). Elizabethtown. Paramount Pictures.

Gill, R. (2007). Postfeminist Media Culture: Elements of a Sensibility. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 10(2), 147–166.

Gondry, M. (2004). Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind. Focus Features.

Grindon, L. (2012). Taking Romantic Comedy Seriously in Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind (2004) and Before Sunset (2004). In A Companion to Film Comedy (pp. 196–216). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Joyner, J. (2018). How Boots Riley Flips the “Manic Pixie Dream Girl” Cliché in ‘Sorry To Bother You’ [REVIEW]. Okayplayer. 

Meeusen, M. (2020). Female Saviors in Adolescent Film Adaptations. In Children’s Books on the Big Screen (pp. 61-86). Jackson: University Press of Mississippi. doi:10.2307/j.ctv11sn6ck.5.

Rabin, N. (2007, January). The Bataan Death March of Whimsy Case File #1: Elizabethtown. AV Club.

Rabin, N. (2014, July). I’m Sorry for Coining the Phrase “Manic Pixie Dream Girl.” Salon.

Solomon, C. (2017). Anarcho-Feminist Melodrama and the Manic Pixie Dream Girl. CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture, 19(1), 1–.

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